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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 211 no land at all, but only water, water, water everywhere — water in place of land, the non-existence of the islands is considered to be proved. Now it cannot be said that each and all of the Negrito areas has been disposed of in the satisfactory way that our imaginary islands have been abolished. It can only be said, that a close approximation to their abolition has been effected. Sefore it can be made absolute, Timor and Floris must be explored minutely; and Freycinet's and Arago's account of the Ombayans be corrected. The notion, however, that the Alfurs of the Moluccas are in any degree Negrito, or that the term Hara- fura, can with any ethnological propriety be connected with the adjective black, may fairly be said to have received its death-blow. Individually, I believe that the whole doctrine of the exist- ence of anything deserving the name of Negro or Negrito to the west of New Guinea is destined to die out — and that it will end in respect to the populations that come within the range of the present investigation with the simple fact, that the men and women of Floris and parts of Timor are darker than those of Java and Sumatra, in the way that a Portu- guese is darker than a Frenchman. The so called blacks of the Andaman Islands, the Malayan Peninsula, and the Philip- pines, may form the subject of another paper. So may the question which has perhaps already suggested itself to some of my hearers, viz : — the prior existence of blacks within the area just investigated ; the prior existence of them being perfectly compatible with their present non-appearance. I do not believe in it. Still, it is a view of the question which should be entertained. A whole class should not be erased from the system of Ethnology without a full consideration of all the questions connected with it. XVII. — Results of Ethnological Observations made during the last Ten Years in England and Wales. By D. Mackintosh, F.G.S., F.E.S. I am very willing to admit the extreme difficulty of classifying the inhabitants of a country, such as England, where so much crossing has occurred. But the experience of the practical ethnologist is similar to that of the inductive geologist. The more he travels, the more he becomes alive to the existence of local peculiarities. It is easy to conceive that a hurried survey may leave the impression that systematic arrangement is im- possible; but a series of successive residences in various p2 212 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. localities will, I believe, convince the ethnologist that the interblending of races has been greatly overrated. The very fact that different dialects still linger in different parts of Eng- land, and that the uneducated inhabitants of one county are unintelligible to those of another county, is a proof that races have not become so intermixed as to defy classification. But as the glossology of England has already been well investigated, I shall majnly confine attention in this paper to those physical peculiarities, which if not positively unalterable, are at least much more enduring than language. A systematic series of observations will render it very difficult for a traveller to resist the impression that the people of one district differ from those of another in the form of the head and features, figure of body, temperament, and complexion ; and a little practice will enable him to make out a predominating type* in a particular locality or ethnographical area. The liability to error does not consist in tracing the existence of such a type, but in coupling it with an ancient historical name ; in calling it Gaelic, Cymbrian, Belgic, Jutian, Frisian, Saxon, Danish, or Norse. These and other historical names will be used in this paper as a means of convenient classification, and not as dogmatically implying that the types so called are certainly descended from the races men- tioned in history; and I shall feel greatly indebted to any fellow of this society who may be able to correct me on this subject. The order I shall adopt in this paper will be geographical rather than historical ; and commencing with the south-east coast of England, the first great ethnological question which presents itself is the Distinction between Jutes, Frisians, and Saxons. The eth- nologist cannot make much progress in the work of classifica- tion without perceiving the necessity of making a distinction between these three races — -a necessity now beginning to be felt by eminent antiquarians. T have been at great pains to try to make out the physical characteristics of the Saxons of English history. To say that the swarms of emigrants who came into England under Saxon leaders were Saxons in the ethnological sense of the term would be about as correct as to assert that the Irish and Scotch [Erse-Scandinavian ?] soldiers who fought in the Crimea under English generals were English. The same remark applies more or less to the difficulty of making out the Saxon form of head from the skulls found in so-called Saxon burial-grounds. From the results of many inquiries made of * The word type is here used to denote a certain combination of physical and mental peculiarities. D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 213 intelligent Germans and English ladies (for I find ladies keen practical ethnologists, with the advantage of not being theore- tically prejudiced) and gentlemen who have travelled in Ger- many — results considered in connection with traditions and impressions prevalent in the more historically Saxon districts of England, I have been led to suppose the following as Saxon characteristics : — light brown or flaxen hair, rather broad semi- circular forehead, nearly semicircular eyebrows, blue or bluish grey and prominent eyes, nearly straight nose of moderate length, rather short broad face [the term broad-faced Saxon is common on the continent] low cheek bones, excessively regular features, flat ears, head of a form between a short parallelo- gram and a round, figure smooth and free from projections, fingers, hands, arms and legs short, more or less tendency to obesity, especially in the epigastric region, in extreme cases giving rise to what is provincially called a corporation, mode- rate stature. According to the phrenological system (the con- venience of which as a means of minutely describing the form of the head is acknowledged in the Brit. Ass. Manual of Eth- nological Inquiry), moderate or rather small perceptive organs, small eventuality and individuality, large comparison, mode- rate casuality, small wit, large benevolence, small veneration and hope, large firmness and conscientiousness, small secretive- ness, small self-esteem and concentration, small adhesiveness. The mental peculiarities, which I have found to accompany the physical above stated, and which agree in the main with those historically assigned to the Saxon, and believed to charac- terize the Saxon in Germany and England, are the following : — slowness of perception (if asked to hold up the right hand will probably hold up the left till he has time to consider which is the right and which the left) more comprehensive than ana- lytical, want of sanguine anticipation, union of self-reliance with meekness and absence of ambition, simple hearted and truthful, more general love than particular attachment, adapted to occupations in general rather than to one in particular, a disposition for pursuits admitting of variety ; if he emigrates he can soon forget old associations and adapt himself to new circumstances. The Saxon according to the foregoing characteristics is not a predominating inhabitant of Kent, He is found in the interior of the Isle of Thanet (on the coast dark complexions are most prevalent) and in the neighbourhood of Sandwich. The Saxon sword and battle axe found by the late Mr. Kolfe in Ozengel churchyard, I should regard as real Saxon, and not Jutian or Frisian. On the south coast of Kent a large proportion of the inhabi- 214 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. tants probably resemble those on the opposite shore of the English channel. On the north coast and scattered through the interior a type to which I shall venture to apply the term Frisian is very common. This face is very much English, certainly as much so as the Saxon face ; and linguistic investigations would seem to point to the conclusion that England has been largely colonized from Friesland. The Frisian type is characterized by a very fair complexion, oval countenance, rather prominent features, narrow head, long neck, narrow shoulders and chest, the broadest part of the frame being where the legs join the body, rather small percep- tive and reflective faculties, little reverence and great firmness, giving rise to self-complacency and independence of authority. In the interior of Kent, especially about Tonbridge, the pre- dominating type is distinctly marked, and I think may be safely called Jutian. It is the same as that prevailing in the eastern part of the Isle of Wight ; and Mr. Roach Smith has lately found that the sepulchral remains of some parts of Kent and the Isle of Wight are identical. I believe this eminent antiquarian is now convinced of the necessity for making a distinction between Jute and Saxon. The Jutian characteristics, which are to be met with not only in Kent, but in many parts along the east coast of England and Scotland, may be stated as follows : — very convex profile, narrow face, head narrow, rather elongated, and very much rounded off" at the sides, very long neck, narrow shoulders and chest, springing gait, frequently tall, especially in the Isle of Wight, large perceptive and rather small reflective faculties, adaptation to the practical affairs of life accompanying deficient imagination. In reference to the narrow shoulders of the Jute and Frisian I may direct attention to the statement made by Polwhele in his History of Cornwall, to the effect that one thousand Cornishmen, in course of being drilled at Chatham, about the time of the French revolution, took up considerably more ground than the same number of Kent men ; and I may likewise mention that the late venerable Archdeacon Williams informed me that he was once present in a regiment in Cardi- ganshire when it was observed that 1,000 Welshmen required as much ground as 1,200 midland county men. Before leaving Kent I may remark that the termination ing is the most common in the central districts, and that it is like- wise the most prevalent termination of the names of places in Jutland. In Sussex the majority of the inhabitants would appear to belong to two races, the Saxon as before described, and a race D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 215 with harder and more angular features, to which perhaps the term Belgic may be applied. The inhabitants belonging to the last mentioned race are generally extreme Calvinists in religion, many of them being followers of Mr. Huntington, S. S. (sinner saved) of Tenterden ; and throughout Sussex there is a greater or less tendency to fatalism, which is fre- quently found implied in epitaphs. The following epitaph, which may be read in Old Brighton churchyard, is similar to many occurring in different parts of the county : — " His fate was hard, 'twas God's decree He should he drownded in the sea." The parts of Sussex and the neighbourhood where the Saxon type may be found in its greatest purity are, an area extending from East Grinstead to Hastings, of considerable breadth, and embracing the south-western portion of the Weald of Kent ; and the flat district situated between Chichester and the sea. So far as the latter district is concerned, the Saxon of modern ethnology may be regarded as identical with the Saxon of ancient history. The principal exceptions to the prevalence of the Saxon type in the above localities are to be found in the towns where manufactures of various kinds were introduced by Flemings in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Portsmouth and the neighbourhood it is very difficult to classify the inhabitants. Between Southampton and Salisbury the Saxon type is very common, and the Saxon mead is still a common beverage. In Salisbury, on a market day, many Saxons may be seen. In the middle and north of Hampshire the people in general belong to a dark complexioned race very different from any to be met with in other parts of England. I have heard the opinion expressed that they are Wendes or a Belgic tribe of Wendish extraction. But whether this opinion has arisen from the old name of Winchester, Venta Belgarum, or has had a better foundation, I shall not pretend to say. It is to be regretted that the bones in the mortuary chests of Winchester Cathedral should have been so displaced and altered from their original relative juxtaposition as to render them of little service to ethnology. But where the interests of physical science have suffered, a moral lesson has been taught ; for the Dane and the Saxon, at one time " sworn enemies," now lie in the same coffin, thus adding force to the simple lines of the Scotch paraphrase : — " And there the peaceful ashes mix Of those who once were foes." In the north-west of Wiltshire and the west of Berkshire the Saxon Hock-tide sports are still kept up ; and in the White Horse Valley the Saxon type is very prevalent. 216 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. Returning towards the south coast we arrive at the New Forest, inhabited by a mixture of races which almost defy classification, the complexion in general being dark. Mr. Purkis, bookseller, Wimborne-Minster, and an innkeeper in the neighbourhood, are the only remaining lineal descendants of the charcoal burner who conveyed the body of William Rufus to Winchester. The inhabitants of Dorsetshire, with comparatively few ex- ceptions, may be included under Saxons and Gaels. These two races may be found side by side even in the same family, as if a law existed preventing their amalgamation. But it may here be necessary to give a detailed statement of what I think may now be safely regarded as the Gaelic peculiarities. In Connaught, Ireland, they appear in their most exaggerated form. The description of a Scotch medical gentleman who had resided among them, namely, " By painting them black you can make negroes of them," is not exactly correct, but the bulging forward of the lower part of the face, and recession of the forehead, are very much in the style of the negro profile. Gaels. Physical characteristics : — head elongated backwards, large verberation, firmness, self-esteem, combativeness, con- centrativeness, and adhesiveness, small benevolence and caus- ality, large perceptive organs, projecting ears, oblique eyebrows, low nose, in most sub-varieties turned up at the point, great distance between the nose and mouth, projecting mouth and jaws, retreating chin, in some of the Irish sub-varieties, no chin, complexion and stature various. Mental characteristics: — quickness of perception, want of reasoning power, tendency to reverence authority, adap- tation to monotonous occupations such as reaping, at one time very lively, at another very melancholy, with a ten- dency to convert the events of life, from births to funerals, into scenic entertainments, the tragedy and comedy frequently following each other in quick succession, extreme attachment and sociability. The Gaelic maxims are " one and all," "union is strength," " I care for every body, yes indeed I do, and I hope every body cares for me." The state of society in a Gaelic country may be compared to an arch, if one stone falls, the whole tumbles to the ground. The mental peculiarities above stated appear under a modi- fied form in Dorsetshire, but the physical are strongly marked. Dorsetshire is remarkable for its Roman burial grounds. Mr. Medhurst, of Weymouth, has collected several hundred Roman skulls, and on examining a number of these skulls I found that in most instances the chin projected very visibly forwards, similar to the representations of effigies on Roman coins furnished in Mr. Akermann's celebrated work. D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 217 The majority of the inhabitants of the Isle of Portland ex- hibit distinct and uniform characteristics, consisting of tall and loosely made frame, square shoulders, hobbling gait, long face, high nose, among the women teeth frequently projecting, a strong antipathy to the " English," and a constant tendency to litigation with the inhabitants of the mainland, and with govern- ment, in religion chiefly Wesleyans, derivation probably Scan- dinavian, but not exactly Danish. Saxons, Gaels, and Flemings, form the principal part of the population of Somerset and Devon. In Exeter, and some other towns in Devon, another type is very conspicuous, which for want of a better name may be called Roman, and which, if not of Roman derivation is probably Moorish, or one of the Iber- ian sub-varieties. At a numerously attended performance of the " Elijah" in the Subscription Rooms, Exeter, some years ago, I, in company with an eminent medical gentleman, very closely observed the physiognomies of the ladies who were present. Nearly one half presented a straight profile, good forehead, long nose, thin lips, prominent chin, and very dark complexion. The inhabitants of Plymouth and Devonport differ very much from one another both physically and mentally, the first being apparently of Saxon, Dutch, or Flemish derivation, the latter chiefly Cornish. In Cornwall the people are not nearly so homogeneous as is commonly supposed. The majority are Gaels, others appa- rently Cymbrian similar to the Welsh, the rest chiefly of Iberian or Spanish descent. The termination o, as in Pasco, Jago, etc., is very common in the names of persons. The Cornish differ from the "Welsh in their being chiefly Armenians, that is, Wes- leyans. A tendency to display, accompanying a loftiness of imagination, with a sensitiveness to praise or censure, may be reckoned among their mental characteristics. The Cornish frequently present instances of a combination of poetic and mechanical talent, and at the collegiate and other schools of the west of England Cornish boys generally beat the shire boys in mathematics. In North Devon, particularly on the borders of Exmoor, the Gaelic type is almost as strikingly marked as in Ireland. I once heard a number of Exmoor Gaelic women converse in Barnstable market. They spoke with so much rapidity and variety of inflexion that little musical skill would have been sufficient to convert their conversation into an Irish jig. I would now cross over into the Principality. On making an ethnological tour in South Wales several years ago, I was surprised to find a considerable diversity of types ; and I have 218 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. sometimes been led to doubt whether the remoter districts of our island are really the most favourable for ethnographical research. Is it not possible that the more open parts of Eng- land or the great military highways, may have experienced a process of sanguinary denudation (to use a geological phrase) by which many tribes were swept away, while the remote nooks and corners became the refuge of a heterogeneous mix- ture of races ? But to return to South Wales, the great mass of the rural population do not differ materially from what may be seen in many parts of England, which corroborates the opinion of some ethnologists who believe that the bulk of the English peasantry are British and not Teutonic. On the coast of South Wales the people are said to resemble those of Brit- tany, if we except Pembroke and the Peninsula of Gower. I am not able to speak of Pembrokeshire from personal observa- tion. In Gower the people are either Flemings or Scandina- vians. Generally speaking they have ruddy complexions, with sandy hair, and differ from the Welsh in being fond of the sea. One Gower boy, I have been told, is worth twenty Welsh boys as a sailor. The Celts in general are bad sailors and good soldiers. The Celt of the Isle of Skye would rather starve than venture to catch fish. Some Teutonic tribes, more espe- cially the Norsemen, find their most congenial home on the " wave." In Wales the people of different counties differ not only in dialect, but physically and mentally. In Caermar- thenshire many of the inhabitants are tall and slender, and a considerable proportion of the young men manifest an early ambition to become preachers. In the inland district called Cynyl Gaio there is a colony of red-haired, tall, robust men, who formerly proved the terror of the neighbouring tribes. In the ironworks and mines of Glamorganshire the men who have emigrated from different counties frequently show an antipathy to one another, and sometimes fight, as if belonging to separate nations. The Cardi or Cardiganshire men are, I believe, the most unpopular in the mining districts. Cymbrians. In the interior of South Wales the inhabitants present the various gradations of physiognomy between Gaels and what I shall venture to call Cymbrians, or dominant Welsh. The Gaelic peculiarities have already been stated. The Cym- brian has a broad head, large secretiveness, full forehead, large causality, sunk half-closed eyes, nose projecting at the point, broad face in the region of the cheek bones, sudden tapering off under the cheek bones, narrow chin, very broad shoulders and chest, stature rather under the middle size, dark brown hair. In mental character he is more analytical than inductive, D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 219 more critical than comprehensive, with a tendency to look towards the past and exercise little confidence in the future. The Cymbrian is naturally an antiquarian. He is ethnologi- cally, or by race, an ethnologist. The real Welsh Cymbrian is very musical ; but the music characteristic of the race must be distinguished from the Gaelic melodies in § time, which are very common in Wales. Cym- brian music is either in £ time, with a frequency of sudden stops and pathetic slurs, or in % time, of which an example is furnished by the tune called Jenny Jones. A Welsh minister generally intones his discourses. The following is a customary preaching tune in North Wales. Key, G minor ; D dd, dddd, CBAG, G, g ab, BA, abc, BA, AD, D. The Welsh are very fond of Handel, and " Angels ever bright and fair" may fre- quently be heard whistled by the same class of boys who in England would prefer " Pop goes the Weasel." The Welsh are extreme Calvinists in religion ; and the relative proportion of persons who have sittings in places of worship in Wales and London may be estimated at about 6 to 1, if I rightly under- stand the last census. In North Wales a large proportion of the inhabitants are tall, and are regarded by some historians as of Belgic derivation. The people of Lancashire are not easily classified. A con- siderable proportion are evidently Cymbrians and Scandina- vians ; but the most prominent types cannot, I think, be safely coupled with any historical names, if indeed, we except the Brigantes. In Cumberland, the inhabitants may be divided into Cymbrian and Norse — the latter presenting at least two sub-varieties ; first, the comparatively flat face with full fore- head, and second, the prominent face with rather retreating forehead. Sandy hair, and ruddy complexions, with blue or bluish-grey eyes are very common ; and the stature of both men and women is far above the average of England. Their prevailing temperament is sanguine, and a tendency to litiga- tion may be reckoned among their mental peculiarities. My observations in the North-western and midland districts of England have been comparatively limited j but so far as they have extended, they have seemed to corroborate the remarks of Worsaae, the Danish traveller. I believe that Danes are not nearly so common in Nor- thumberland as is commonly supposed, the mass of the peo- ple being apparently British. In the county of Durham, the existence of a tall and fair race, not Scandinavian, and appa- rently superimposed on the British population, would lead one to suppose that there is an Anglian type, distinct from Saxon, and probably standing midway between Saxon and Dane. 220 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. This type, the detailed characteristics of which I am not pre- pared to state, is found not only in Durham, but in the south- east of Scotland in the district- marked German in Dr. Kombst's map, and scattered over the east-central districts of England. Danes. The Dane of East Yorkshire and more especially of Lincolnshire presents unmistakeable peculiarities. Lincoln- shire is pre-eminently Danish. To this conclusion I have been led, not only from minute personal observations, but from cor- respondence with that eminent philosophical novelist, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, whose works abound with the most valuable ethnological allusions and delineations. I need not refer to the termination by in the names of places, nor to family names which have continued unaltered since the time of the Scandinavian invasions, as proofs of the Danish derivation of the inhabitants of Lincolnshire. Their physical and mental characteristics reveal their origin. The Danish type in Lin- colnshire would appear to present two subvarieties, the convex profiled and prominent mouthed Dane, and the sunk-mouthed and prominent chinned Dane, the first probably a connecting link with the Jute, the latter perhaps a connecting link with the higher Norwegian type, allied to what is commonly called Norman. Both have high cheek bones, a sinking in above the cheek bones at the sides of the forehead, long face and high nose, ruddy complexion, red or sandy hair, or failing the hair, red or sandy whiskers. The skull is rather narrow and elon- gated, with very large perceptive organs, especially locality, rather large comparison, moderate causality, rather large be- nevolence and veneration, very large hope, very large firmness, large self-esteem, etc. Temperament sanguine. Tall and rather loosely made figure, long legs and arms. Mental characteristics .-—^tendency to energetic exertion, which if not directed to good will find vent in mischief, liabi- lity to get into hot water, good masters but bad servants, great ambition, fond of good living and strong drink. The Danish character presents a combination of great faults and great virtues, unlike some races which exhibit neither the one nor the other. Proceeding in a southerly direction we find a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of the east of England presenting the Dutch physical and mental peculiarities, a fact easily accounted for on historical grounds. But the more influential inhabitants of Norfolk and the neighbourhood are Danes. In Cambridgeshire and the north-west of Essex there would appear to be many Saxons, but in the east and south-east of Essex the mass of the people show very few signs of Teutonic origin. I should regard them as either of British or French- D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations 221 Flemish derivation. I have frequently heard it asserted that the smallest heads in England are to be found in Essex, but I have not had an opportunity of verifying this assertion by personal observation. With regard to London, at which, after making the circuit of South Britain, I have now arrived, a separate paper might be written on the extent to which races have preserved their peculiarities ; but as I have already, I fear, trespassed too long on your attention, I would conclude by remarking that as in geology so in ethnology, the more one investigates the more is the necessity for subdivision perceived ; and as in geology the progress of inquiry reveals order, law, and system, where before chance was supposed to prevail, so in ethnology, the extension of observation confirms the belief that nothing has sprung up in a random manner, that no combination of fea- tures or assemblage of faculties, no relative form or arrange- ment of physical or moral peculiarities has accidently arisen ; but that, on the contrary, fixed principles pervade every inter- stice of the organic as well as inorganic worlds, principles of which all the diversities of countenance, figure, and mental character we discover among men are but the embodiments. An ethnological survey of England and Wales discloses no in- dication of types becoming permanently modified through the influence of climate and habit, for everywhere we find the most diverse peculiarities under the same circumstances, and the most striking uniformity of type under the most dissimilar conditions ; and such a result accords with the discovery of Professor Rask, of Stockholm, that the form of Scandinavian skulls was precisely the same 2,000 years ago, as at the present day. The most modern aspect of ethnology does not seem to favour the doctrine that one organic form has gradually arisen out of another during the indefinite lapse of ages without the intervention of a creative act, or at least a creational law. That a law admitting of, or regulating forces by which new species replace those which have died out, and that these new species may appear on the stage of time synchronously with the cir- cumstances to which they are adapted, can easily be conceived ; but that this law can embrace a process of progressive improve- ment to which no limit can be assigned, as some naturalists suppose, seems to be little short of a contradiction in terms. Does it not become the geologists and ethnologists of the present day to consider whether a law can possibly exist, the end of which is not seen from the beginning, and whether the general analogy of time and space warrants the supposition that any deviations from uniformity can ever take place which are not cyclically compensated ?